Reprint, New York: Chelsea House, 1983. This less organized program managed to link much of the United States together by 1860. Balinky, Alexander. He held the office longer than any other person in U.S. history, and he became one of the most influential men of the early American republic. His efforts were complicated by high military expenditures and the purchase of the Louisiana territory in 1803. But this final phase of his life yielded irony as well as accomplishment. Appointed by the new president, Thomas Jefferson, in 1801, he needed to ensure that the economy flourished while following the dictates of his party, which insisted on less control by the federal government and the country’s financial elite. "Committee on Ways and Means, History." Shortly after he returned in 1823 Gallatin was chosen to run as William Crawford’s vice president in the 1824 election. "Albert Gallatin Most people know something about the first four presidents, and they’ve now learned a bit about Alexander Hamilton. He hoped to connect all Americans to the market system while maintaining a national unity that would overcome local and sectional disputes. Gallatin established a system of regular financial reports to Congress and worked hard to reduce the national debt in order to secure the nation’s independence. American Eras. He also suggested that certain roads be constructed to connect the new cities within the West. Why The Whiskey Rebellion Was Important Sources The Whiskey Rebellion was a 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania … (December 21, 2020). Gallatin went on to help establish New York University and serve as president of the New-York Historical Society. Gallatin laid the foundation for sound governmental fiscal (economic) policies that would guide the young nation for years to come. He brought his new bride, Sophie Allegre, to their wilderness home, but she died that fall after only a few months of marriage. 3d. In 1818 he joined Richard Rush in London to work out a treaty extending earlier commercial agreements, securing American fishing rights off Newfoundland, drawing the northern boundary between Canada and the United States at the 49th parallel, and leaving the Oregon Territory open for joint occupation. U.S. secretary of the treasury, congressman, diplomat. Albert Gallatin was born into an aristocratic Swiss family, but gave up fortune and social position and emigrated to America in 1780, where he might "drink in a love for independence in the freest country of the … . He became the Society's first president and published several more papers. As the nation's first secretary of the treasury under President George Washingto…, William McKinley . Young Albert became orphaned at the age of nine and was sent to live with a distant relative, Catherine Picket. Albert Gallatin, in full Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, (born Jan. 29, 1761, Geneva, Switz.—died Aug. 12, 1849, Astoria, N.Y., U.S.), fourth U.S. secretary of the Treasury (1801–14). Settling in Pennsylvania, he became a mainstay of the anti-Federalists (and, later, the Jeffersonian Republicans) in that area and in 1795 was elected to the House of Representatives. In 1793 he was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Republican. Also in 1831, Gallatin published Considerations on the Currency and Banking System of the United States. His mother was Sophie Albertine Rolaz du Rosey, and his father, Jean Gallatin, was a merchant. In 1826, Gallatin accepted a one-year appointment from President John Quincy Adams and served as the American ambassador to Great Britain, returning from London in 1827. Although Gallatin favored rechartering the Bank of the United States in 1811, Congress refused, and America entered the War of 1812 with its monetary system in disarray. Albert Gallatin and James Madison worked to reestablish a legislative finance committee to monitor government taxes and spending. At the same time he had his own vision of the future of the United States, which included federal aid for the economic development of the Trans-Appalachian West. A militia is an organized military force, made up of citizens, that serves in times of emergency. RC (DLC); undated; addressed: “The President”; endorsed by TJ as a letter of 26 Oct. received from the Treasury Department on the same day and “paimt of interest at Paris. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Albert-Gallatin, Federal Reserve History - Biography of Albert Gallatin, The First Amendment Encyclopedia - Biography of Albert Gallatin, U.S Department of the Treasury - Biography of Albert Gallatin, History Central - Biography of Albert Gallatin, Albert Gallatin - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). While in Congress, he established a standing committee on finance that later became the House Ways and Means Committee. Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. After signing the treaty, Gallatin traveled to Geneva to visit his native land after a thirty-five year absence, and he remained in Europe throughout 1815 in order to assist U.S. minister to England John Quincy Adams (1767–1848) and Speaker of the House Henry Clay (1777–1852; see entry in volume 1) in negotiating a new trade agreement with Great Britain. In the winter of 1789, Gallatin was elected as a delegate to the Pennsylvania state convention, which rewrote the state constitution. He also kept an interest in foreign affairs. Gallatin continued in diplomatic service for most of the next decade. In 1847, toward the end of the Mexican American War, he warned C- Albert Gallatin convinced Jefferson to sign the Alien & Sedition Act. He published his findings in A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions of North America. Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. Having a strong interest in education, Gallatin in 1830 helped found New York University. Gallatin served as U.S. ambassador to France and to England before ending a public career that lasted almost four decades. “I think the most important thing in the book,” he said, “is the description in chapter 6 of why Gallatin and the other Republicans wanted to undo Hamilton’s system. The sites below are just a sampling of what is available: Archiving Early America: The Whiskey Rebellion http://www.earlyamerica.com/milestone-events/whiskey-rebellion/ "The Whiskey Rebellion," in The History of Bedford and Somerset Counties, by E. Howard Blackburn and William H. Welfley. He was returned to office in 1791 and again in 1792 with uncontested elections. American Eras. Treasury Secretary. Tradesm…, Morris, Robert (1734-1806) 21 Dec. 2020 . However, he devoted most of his attention to the ethnology of the American Indian and founded the American Ethnological Society in 1842. . He owned land in Monongalia County, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), but his permanent residence was actually in the neighboring county of Fayette, He is known for being the founder of New York University and for serving in the Democratic-Republican Party at various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades. Gallatin was able to convince Congress to raise customs duties to help finance the war. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,589, making it the fifth-least populous county in Illinois. Pledged to reduce the national debt and eliminate the excise tax, he projected a plan to pay off the debt by 1817, outlined proposals for appropriations for specified purposes, advocated promotion of manufacturing, and argued for constructing a nationwide network of roads and canals with Federal aid. Gallatin also remained active in a variety of intellectual and charitable activities throughout his life. That intersection is being improved with widening, sidewalks, and a new mast-arm traffic signal. Swiss-born Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) was U.S. secretary of the Treasury, as well as a diplomat, banker, and ethnographer. against greed and racism that followed the peace with Mexico among the U.S. settlers moving into the Southwest. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gallatin-albert. But he most important function still remains the delivery of meals to homes, and the personal interaction it affords seniors. . In 1788 he was elected as a delegate to a meeting to propose amendments to the new U.S. Constitution. . Historian Henry Adams labeled the Treaty of Ghent "the special and peculiar triumph of Mr. When Great Britain rejected this offer, Madison appointed Gallatin to the commission to negotiate directly with Britain. On January 3, 1860 Albert Gallatin Brown, Senator from Mississippi took to the floor of the Senate. While still in Europe, Gallatin was appointed minister to France (served 1816–23), after which he returned to the United States, only to be embroiled in a bitter intraparty political struggle. Gallatin approached Savary with a land development project. When Albert turned thirteen, he entered the Academy of Geneva, where he received an excellent education. Land speculation is the buying of undeveloped frontier land cheaply with the intention of later reselling it to settlers at a higher price, thus making a profit. Biographer Nicholas Dungan states he was: "America's Swiss Founding Father." Quickly establishing a reputation for hard work and integrity, Gallatin became a skillful and logical orator. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Albert Gallatin is considered one of the most influential men of the early American Republic, and one of the most prominent Swiss-Americans in U.S. history. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/albert-gallatin. Gallatin served in the Pennsylvania state legislature from 1790 to 1792. Encyclopedia.com. With Britain agreeing to talk, Gallatin resigned his secretary's position in February 1814 to lead the negotiations for the United States with Britain. Encyclopedia of World Biography. The Whiskey Rebellion resulted in the formation of a militia that attacked public offices in Pittsburgh as well as any government agents sent to collect the tax from local farmers. A young man of the age of the Enlightenment, he was sympathetic to the American Revolution and sailed for America in 1780, happy to be in "the freest country in the universe.". Born January 29, 1761 (Geneva, Switzerland), U.S. secretary of the treasury, congressman, diplomat. he brought down the countries debt the most then any other secretary He was also instrumental in obtaining a charter (government authorization) for the Bank of Pennsylvania which was created to help manage state finances. Geneva was the birthplace of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the eighteenth-century democratic political philosopher, and as a young man Gallatin embraced Rousseau’s romantic ideas about returning to nature and celebrating the common man. IF YOU WANT TO HELP: For information about how to donate to Albert Gallatin Human Services Agency, please call 724-583-7822. Although few people in his party supported the renewal of the national bank, he insisted that this institution, which had both public and private investors, could help stabilize the economy without harming the people of the United States. During his final years, Gallatin served as president of the New York Historical Society. Gallatin County was created on September 14, 1812. When Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war, the national debt was higher than ever. When James Madison retired in 1797, Gallatin became the Republican spokesman in the House. Albert Gallatin, our 4th Secretary of the Treasury, was born on January 29, 1761 in Geneva, Switzerland.He emigrated to the United States and arrived in Boston in 1780, but didn’t stay there long before moving on to Machias in Maine. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. He settled on a rented farm in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and opened a small store and office in preparation for the expected land rush. Western Politics . Because the Charter of the First Bank of the United States was not renewed, Gallatin had various problems funding the War of 1812. Albert Gallatin’s thought about the idea of Manifest Destiny was: US should be superior.. Whiskey Rebellion, uprising against the liquor tax in Pennsylvania in 1794 that was militarily quelled, though no battle ensued. This committee is very important and powerful because it also supervises a number of entitlement (guaranteed benefits to citizens) programs. He graduated from the Academy of Geneva in 1779. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Gallatin's role in settling the Whiskey Rebellion earned him the gratitude from the citizens of western Pennsylvania. In his retirement he also pursued an interest in Native Americans, writing and sponsoring a number of ethnographic works about various tribes. Encyclopedia.com. Gallatin's public career ended with his final report relating to the Maine boundary dispute. Gallatin played an important mediating role during the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion, an uprising of western Pennsylvanians angered by federal liquor taxes. "Albert Gallatin in Pennsylvania." In 1831, at the age of seventy, Gallatin became president of the new National Bank of New York, and in that position, he continued to advocate the nation's financial integrity. The Committee on Ways and Means retained its control over all taxes and revenue measures collected to pay the debts of the United States. The following year, he was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature as a representative of Fayette County. New York: Macmillan, 1957. New York: AMS Press, 1972. Gallatin is a city in and the county seat of Sumner County, Tennessee. But after 1807 the Embargo Act and other American efforts at peaceful coercion to avoid involvement in the Napoleonic Wars wrecked his policies. "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) Adams, Henry, Albert Gallatin, New York: Chelsea House, 1983. Gallatin earned a reputation as an expert in the area of public finance, and he was considered an able spokesman for the small farms and businesses he represented. In 1789 Gallatin had married Sophia Allegre, who died 5 months later. Moreover, he followed his unique Gallatinian approach to domestic policy as well as international diplomacy, always in pursuit of one paramount objective: the preservation of individual liberty within the context of a republic. Disappointed by the results, Gallatin purchased a wagon and loaded it with sugar, tobacco, and rum. Gallatin’s vision included a nationwide transportation program, which he proposed to Congress in 1808, that was to be partially funded by the federal government. Philadelphia: J. Ralph Ketcham In what became known as the Louisiana Purchase, the United States bought 800,000 square miles for $15 million, although Congress had authorized only $2 million for a much smaller area. Albert Gallatin: Early America's Swiss-Born Statesman. After Jefferson’s election as president in 1800, Gallatin naturally became secretary of the treasury, a post he held into the administration of James Madison, resigning in 1814. His A Sketch of the Finances of the United States (1796), a moderate, detailed analysis of the Federalist financial program, argued that a public debt was a public curse. American Eras. L. B. Kuppenheimer, Albert Gallatin’s Vision of Democratic Stability (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996); Raymond Walters, Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat (New York: Macmillan, 1957). Returning home in 1823, the Gallatins settled on the family estate at Friendship Hill. His greatest contribution came in the field of public finance. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/albert-gallatin, "Albert Gallatin ." Listed in the tables below are the 102 NHLs outside Philadelphia. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Gallatin died on Aug. 13, 1849. Nominated for vice president on the Republican ticket headed by William H. Crawford, he withdrew when Crawford's manager attempted to substitute Henry Clay as the vice-presidential candidate. Gallatin's opinions were highly respected on a national level and his last pamphlet, Suggestions on the Banks and Currency of the Several United States, was well received. A student of the Indian tribes in North America, he founded the American Ethnological Society of New York (1842) and has sometimes been called the “father of American ethnology.”. The other is the U.S. Senate. However, Crawford fell ill and Gallatin decided it was time to retire and The county seat is Shawneetown. Grasping at Russia’s proffered mediation of the war, he sailed for Europe in May 1813. While in office, he set up the House Committee on Finance, which was the forerunner of the present-day Ways and Means Committee (see box). Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. During the summer of 1794, he urged all citizens to peacefully submit to the tax in order to restore law and order in the state. ." After a winter as a merchant in Maine, and a brief time with the colonial militia, Gallatin tutored in French in Boston in 1781. "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) Sketch of the Finances of the United States was published in 1796, and Views of the Public Debt, Receipts, and Expenditures was published in 1800. During Albert's time at the Academy, his natural abilities and intelligence were recognized by several renowned scholars. He insisted upon a continuity of sound governmental fiscal policies when the Republican (Jeffersonian) Party assumed national political power, and he was instrumental in negotiating an end to the War of 1812. Gallatin County, Illinois Gallatin County Education, Geography, and History. and “Missouri” and so recorded in SJL . After Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as U.S. president in March 1801, Gallatin became the secretary of the treasury. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Gallatin is best known for serving as Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Originally, it held power over both taxes and spending. All bills proposing to raise revenue must originate in the House and go through the Committee on Ways and Means. ." ONE of the most beloved of American presidents, William McKinley served as the nation's chief executive during a time w…, Albert I of Monaco (Honoré Charles Grimaldi), https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gallatin-albert, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/albert-gallatin, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849-0, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849, Taxation, Public Finance, and Public Debt. "Gallatin, Albert He had outlived many of his colleagues from the early days of the American republic. Great Britain declined to negotiate through the Russians but agreed to talk directly with the U.S. delegates. Robert Morris was born in Liverpool, England. Later, as secretary of the treasury, Gallatin Early Career. 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